Moscow warned the action could spell trouble for U.S.-Russian relations.
The State Department said those on the list will be barred from receiving or holding U.S. visas and are prevented from conducting business in the United States.
"The appearance of any list will undoubtedly have a negative effect on Russian and U.S. relations," Dmitry Peskov, a spokesman for President Vladimir Putin, told RIA Novosti Friday before the list was released.
The list, created by the Magnitsky Act, is named after Sergei Magnitsky, a Russian lawyer who died in 2009 after he was detained in Moscow for alleging massive fraud by Russian Interior and Tax Ministry officials. While Russian authorities said Magnitsky died after suffering heart problems, his supporters have alleged he was tortured to death.
In response to the Magnitsky Act, Russia barred Americans from adopting Russian children and created a list of U.S. officials it accused of violating the rights of Russians abroad. Russia's list is expected to be released after the Magnitsky List is made public.
The list published by the Treasury Department listed 18 individuals, including Letscha Bogatirov and Kazbek Dukuzov, two Chechen police officers accused of human rights abuses.