Anthony owes approximately $800,000 -- mostly to her attorney, Jose Baez -- though she only has about $1,084, the petition, filed in U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Florida, said.
"This is the next step towards closure for me," she said Friday after filing the petition.
Anthony is currently facing three civil lawsuits after a jury found her not guilty in July 2011 of murdering Caylee, aggravated child abuse and aggravated manslaughter.
She initially told police the girl's nanny, Zenaida Fernandez-Gonzalez, kidnapped her. Police discovered there was no nanny, and a woman of the same name is suing Anthony for defamation, the Orlando Sentinel reported.
Gonzalez's lawyer, Matt Morgan, said Anthony's bankruptcy is an attempt to delay the suit.
"This most recent filing appears to be yet another calculated delay tactic. We are not deterred and will stay the course," he said Saturday.
Anthony is also facing a civil lawsuit from Roy Kronk, the man who found Caylee's body. Her attorney's had speculated Kronk was the possible killer. Texas EquuSearch, is also suing, saying it spent $100,000 searching for Caylee.
Anthony owes approximately $500,000 to Baez; $145,660.21 to the Orange County Sheriff's Office; $68,540 to the Internal Revenue Service; $61,505 to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement; and $10,283.90 to the Metropolitan Bureau of Investigation, the Sentinel reported.