Cuomo, a Democrat who pressed hard for the sweeping bill's passage, put his signature on the Secure Ammunition and Firearms Enforcement Act an hour after the state Assembly voted 104-43 in favor of the package the Senate had passed 43-18 Monday night, the Albany Times Union reported.
"You can overpower the extremists with intelligence and with reason and with common sense," Cuomo said before signing the measure.
The National Rifle Association responded to the development by issuing a statement in which it said its members "are outraged at the draconian gun control bill that was rushed through the process late Monday evening."
Assemblyman Jim Tedisco, a Republican, held up a copy of the U.S. Constitution and lamented the additional restrictions placed on gun ownership in the state.
"Amendment Two -- you're going to turn that into Amendment 1.5 today," Tedisco said.
Some Republican Assembly members accused Cuomo during Tuesday's debate of rushing the law to passage through secret meetings.
Public pressure for government action to reduce gun violence has mounted since 20 children and six adults were killed Dec. 14 in a massacre at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Conn.