In 2011, 5.8 million Americans age 12 older -- 22.5 of every 1,000 -- were victims of violent crime, up from 19.3 in 2010, the study found.
Violent crime includes homicide, rape or sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated or simple assault.
About 17.1 million more Americans were victims of property damage crimes, an increase of 11 percent.
The study notes the percentage increases seem large because overall crime rates are at near-historic lows, so even a slight increase in the actual number of incidents produces a large percentage increase.
The increase from 2010 to 2011 is slightly below the average increase in the raw number of violent incidents reported annually, the study said.