The students, who make up about half of an introductory government class, were accused of either working together to come up with answers to test questions or copying from one another, The Boston Globe reported.
"[The allegations], if proven, represent totally unacceptable behavior that betrays the trust upon which intellectual inquiry at Harvard depends," said Drew Faust, the university's president. "There is work to be done to ensure that every student at Harvard understands and embraces the values that are fundamental to its community of scholars."
The school did not identify the students involved.
Officials said the students are required to appear before the college's administrative board individually in the next few weeks.
Those found guilty of cheating face up to a yearlong suspension.