Thirty-seven Democrats joined 233 Republicans Thursday in supporting the repeal, despite a veto threat by Obama.
The tax on medical devices, scheduled to take effect in January, was among the taxes and fees meant to help offset the cost of subsidizing health insurance coverage for more than 30 million people.
During the last 18 months, the Republican-controlled House voted at least a dozen times to repeal the law, either in whole or in part, and to cut funding for carrying out provisions in the law, The New York Times reported.
The bill passed Thursday heads to the Democratic-led Senate.
The Supreme Court is expected to rule soon on a challenge to the healthcare law by 26 states that argued the law's requirement that most Americans have health insurance is unconstitutional.