The White House and Democrats said the bill actually differed from Obama's budget because it lacked policy report language.
The Senate next takes up four Republican spending blueprints, which also are expected to be defeated, The Hill reported.
Republicans have been hammering their Democratic colleagues over spending, producing budgets that pare back discretionary spending to trim the deficit. The president and fellow Democrats argue raising taxes has to be a component of any deficit-trimming spending plan.
The action came as congressional leaders met at the White House with Obama to discuss his "to-do" list.