He also had a minor back injury, the medical records obtained by ABC News indicate.
Zimmerman, 28, told police he shot unarmed 17-year-old Martin in self-defense Feb. 26 after the teen attacked him. Martin had been walking through a Sanford, Fla., gated community just north of Orlando after stopping at a convenience store, police said.
The medical report indicated Zimmerman refused hospitalization despite his facial bruises, ABC News said.
Zimmerman complained of "occasional nausea when thinking about the violence" and was told to see a psychologist, the network said, citing the three-page medical report.
The medical report is among 67 compact discs of evidence turned over Monday to defense attorney Mark O'Mara.
By law, the prosecution must also provide the evidence to the media, but State Attorney Angela Corey's office said it needed time to review the records and black out sensitive information.
A neighbor told ABC News he saw Zimmerman talk with police outside his home the day after the shooting. The neighbor said he recalled seeing black eyes and significant swelling -- as well as a bandage over Zimmerman's nose.
Also Tuesday, WFTV, Orlando, reported an autopsy showed Martin had broken skin on his knuckles.
Zimmerman attorney Mark O'Mara wouldn't comment on the autopsy evidence.
If Zimmerman can demonstrate he was in reasonable fear for his life, a judge could dismiss the case before it reaches a jury, The Miami Herald reported Wednesday.
Florida authorities last month charged Zimmerman with second-degree murder.
He remains in hiding on $150,000 bail. His movements are monitored electronically and he must abide by a 7 p.m.-to-6 a.m. home curfew and a requirement to check in with authorities every three days.