A copy of the fetal image would become part of the woman's medical records. It would remain in the records for at least seven years.
While the bill as finally enacted, removed a requirement that some women have ultrasounds done with a vaginal probe and exempted victims of rape or incest, critics say it is still an intrusion on women's privacy.
Kristi VanAudenhove, co-director of the Action Alliance, said rape and incest victims would be forced to report their plans to law enforcement.
Opponents tried to keep the heat on the governor, the Richmond Times-Dispatch reported. Thirty people were arrested Saturday during a demonstration at the state Capitol, and McDonnell changed his voting time for Tuesday's Virginia primary because protesters were waiting at his polling place.