The high court scheduled oral arguments for Jan. 9 on the maps, the Austin American-Statesman reported.
The court in San Antonio changed the congressional and state legislative district maps approved by the legislature, finding that they discriminated against minority voters.
Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott argued the appeals court overstepped its authority.
Nina Perales, a lawyer for the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, which sued over the original maps, said the state may have to postpone the March primary election.
"This would create pure chaos in Texas elections," Perales said. "The court is risking throwing the entire election into disarray."
Abbott said he hopes the Supreme Court will work quickly.