The legislation, approved by unanimous consent, would allow the government to run through Tuesday, giving time for House lawmakers to return to Washington next week to vote on a six-week funding measure already approved by the Senate, The Hill said.
The move Thursday did not require the House members to return to Washington to vote.
The House is scheduled to hold a roll-call vote on the longer extension Tuesday.
Republicans and Democrats resolved differences over disaster funding earlier this week, paving way for the extension. The Senate approved the short-term funding bill and a longer-term temporary spending bill that would keep government operating through Nov. 18.
Resolution was reached after the Federal Emergency Management Agency announced it didn't need the billions of dollars in immediate funding for disaster aid that Democrats said was needed, allowing both parties to drop GOP language that would have given FEMA another $1 billion in funds immediately that was offset by cutting Energy Department programs favored by Democrats.