Police arrested Japhia Huhndorf of Livingston, Calif., and she was being held in the Merced County Jail on a $500,000 bond on child endangerment charges.
She was expected to appear in court Friday, KFSN-TV, Fresno, Calif., reported.
The nitroglycerin was safely exploded by authorities. A search of her home failed to turn up anything odd, police said.
"With her cooperation, we conducted a search," said Sgt. Ray Fong. "Nothing was found as far as explosives or anything like that."
Fong said the teacher hasn't denied her involvement, and her attitude is that she didn't do anything wrong.
Huhndorf allegedly helped some students get high by sniffing chloroform, police said.
Scott Scambray, Merced Union High School District Supt. said, declined to provide details about the incidents.
"Once police become involved then everything is turned over to them," Scambray said.