The surgery in Oakland Friday removed basal carcinoma cells from the right side of the governor's nose and he is expected to fully recover, the Los Angeles Times reported.
Brown's office said the procedure was performed under local anesthetic at a doctor's office. The procedure is called Mohs surgery, in which microscopic layers of skin are examined under a microscope to detect the presence of cancerous cells.
Basal cell carcinoma is among the most common forms of skin cancer. It can be caused by sun exposure and is very treatable.
Brown will continue to work, but a statement from his office said he won't appear in public until the sutures are removed Friday.
The surgery forced the cancellation of Brown's planned Sunday speech to the state Democratic Party convention in Sacramento.