Wasserman Schultz, D-Fla., will replace outgoing Chairman Tim Kaine, who said Tuesday he is running for the Senate seat currently held by Jim Webb of Virginia, USA Today reported.
"In selecting Debbie to lead our party, President Obama noted her tenacity, her strength, her fighting spirit and her ability to overcome adversity," Biden said in an e-mail to committee members.
"President Obama expressed great admiration for her as a leader, and he was honored that she accepted this important challenge on behalf of the Democratic Party."
Wasserman Schultz, 44, came to Congress in 2004 and was instrumental in sweeping Democrats into the majority two years later, the newspaper said.
This year House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi of California recruited Wasserman Schultz to hone the party's message on jobs and deficit reduction. She is a breast-cancer survivor and a close friend of Rep. Gabrielle Giffords, D-Ariz., who was wounded during a shooting spree in Tucson Jan. 8.