Many are drafting and some have already introduced bills banning most abortions at 20 weeks after conception, The New York Times reported.
House Speaker John Boehner is anti-abortion, and following the mid-term elections anti-abortion proponents have the support of 29 governors considered to be solidly anti-abortion, the newspaper said.
"This is worrisome because the governors have been the firewall, they've vetoed a lot of bad anti-choice legislation," said Ted Miller, a spokesman for Naral Pro-Choice America.
Kansas Gov. Sam Brownback wasted no time in addressing abortion.
"I call on the Legislature to bring to my desk legislation that protects the unborn, establishing a culture of life in Kansas," Brownback said in his first State of the State message last week.
Anti-abortion proponents see the conservative political shift as an opportunity to further restrict abortion.
"This is the best climate for passing pro-life laws in years," said Michael Gonidakis, executive director of Ohio Right to Life. "We've got a pro-life governor and a brand new pro-life speaker. Our government now is pro-life from top to bottom."