An 11th suspect remained at large, the U.S. Justice Department said in a release.
The suspects are accused of carrying out long-term, "deep-cover" assignments for Russia. They are charged in two criminal complaints with conspiring to act as unlawful agents of the Russian Federation within the United States. Nine of them also are charged with conspiring to launder money.
The 10 suspects in custody were arrested Sunday in New Jersey, New York and Virginia, authorities said.
Two defendants, identified as "Richard Murphy" and "Cynthia Murphy," were picked up at their home in Montclair, N.J. Vicky Pelaez and a defendant known as "Juan Lazaro" were arrested at their residence in Yonkers, N.Y. Anna Chapman was arrested in Manhattan. Defendants known as "Michael Zottoli," "Patricia Mills" and Mikhail Semenko were taken into custody at their homes in Arlington, Va. Defendants known as "Donald Howard Heathfield" and "Tracey Lee Ann Foley" were arrested at their residence in Boston.
The defendant known as "Christopher R. Metsos" remained at large.
Federal authorities said the arrests follow a multiyear investigation conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the U.S. attorney's office, and the Counterespionage Section and the Office of Intelligence within the Justice Department's National Security Division.
Details of the alleged espionage were not provided.