The majority of the members of the European Parliament voted in favor of a measure that would require consumers to obtain a license for so-called high-risk chemicals.
Convicted Norwegian terrorist Anders Breivik used a bomb made from fertilizer and fuel oil to attack the government district in Oslo last year. At least 209 people were injured in an attack that left eight people dead.
Dutch lawmaker Jan Mulder said bloc-wide rules were needed in order to ensure access to potential precursors was restricted.
"We need to ensure that the differing national rules do not allow the sale of certain substances," he said in a statement. "After all, the common fight against terrorism needs rules common to all member states."
No license will be needed for common cleaning agents or fertilizers though sellers are required to register their sales.
The measure needs backing by the European Council before it goes into effect. Member states would then have 18 months to put the restrictions into force.