The provincial Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals told CTV News it received a tip about the dog farm in the rural village of Brebeuf last week.
A Humane Society International statement said the living conditions were deplorable, the Canadian Broadcasting Corp. said.
"The dogs were chained outside without regular access to adequate food, clean water or shelter," the HSI said.
The SPCA said at least 30 of the dogs appeared pregnant and several had skin diseases. Investigators also found a pit containing rotting animal carcasses, CTV said.
The agency reportedly struck a deal not to charge the unidentified owner in exchange for his immediate surrender of the dogs.
The SPCA said all the dogs were under veterinary care and would gradually be adopted out as their health conditions improved.
It also issued an appeal for local donations to help the sudden spike in care and food costs, the reports said.