The 71-year-old Democrat from Illinois said at a news conference in Chicago he wants to spend his remaining time in the Senate helping constituents instead of raising funds to campaign for a full six-year term.
Burris was appointed by former Illinois Gov. Rod Blagojevich to fill the Senate seat vacated by U.S. President Barack Obama before Blagojevich was impeached and removed from office in January.
"Today," Burris said, "I have returned to the place where my political journey began back in 1978, back to the South Side of Chicago, back to my community and my constituency to announce that I will not be a candidate in the 2010 election and that I will not run for the United States Senate.
"Make no mistake: I love serving in the United States Senate," he added. "Make no mistake about that. I love serving the people of Illinois."
Burris, who accepted the appointment in December, will continue to serve until his term ends in January 2011.