Among those arrested Wednesday were a police officer, a felony court clerk, two corrections officers and 27 school bus drivers and attendants, CNN said.
A total of 62 people were charged with racketeering, conspiracy to commit racketeering and grand theft, the Miami-Dade state attorney's office said.
The alleged scam, that reportedly began in January 2003, used health insurance information to fraudulently obtain prescriptions.
Authorities say the suspects used 130 bogus prescriptions to obtain 12,000 OxyContin pills with an estimated street value of almost $400,000, The Miami Herald reported.
OxyContin is said to deliver an instant "high" when it is crushed or dissolved and ingested.