The National People's Congress elected Hu to another five-year term until 2013 and also made him chairman of the Central Military Commission, the official Xinhua news agency reported.
Wu Bangguo was appointed as chairman of the parliament's Standing Committee, who will lead a team of 160 members.
Xi Jinping, widely regarded as Hu's handpicked successor, has risen rapidly through the Communist Party hierarchy. Prior to becoming vice president, he had been a member of the powerful Politburo Standing Committee.
His promotion comes as China prepares to host the Summer Olympics in Beijing in August.