The demonstration by about 100 people came one day after police disrupted a similar anti-government protest in Moscow, RIA Novosti reported.
St. Petersburg's interior department said members of the National-Bolshevik Party were among the demonstrators, along with Union of Rights Forces leader Nikita Belykh.
Euronews.net reported that liberal leader Boris Nemtsov also was arrested during the unauthorized march, months before he is to take part in the Russian presidential elections.
While recent polls have found most Russians support President Vladimir Putin, his political reign has been harshly criticized by human rights advocates and been the target of numerous protests this year.
Swim Week Miami Beach 2014 [PHOTOS]