The official Jordanian news agency said the king urged the Israeli government to prevent extremist Jewish groups from reaching al-Aqsa Mosque, Islam's third holiest shrine.
Jerusalem's Muslim and Christian holy sites have been under Jordan's supervision since Israel's capture of the West Bank, including east Jerusalem, in the 1967 Arab-Israeli war.
The 1994 Jordan-Israel peace treaty recognized Jordan's guardianship of such shrines.
Abdullah also urged the international community to "recognize the dangers that could result from such provocative acts that will totally destroy the peace process."
Meanwhile, hundreds of students at the University of Jordan, the kingdom's largest state university, held a demonstration demanding the protection of al-Aqsa Mosque.
They burned American and Israeli flags and chanted slogans demanding the Jordanian government revoke its treaty with Israel and expel the Israeli ambassador from Amman.
They carried banners reading "Death to Israel," "We sacrifice ourselves for al-Aqsa" and "Down with the Wadi Araba treaty," in reference to the Jordan-Israel peace accord.