Tedford was relieved of his duties three days after Oregon State beat Cal 62-14. The Golden Bears finished the season with a 3-9 overall record, and 2-7 in the Pac-12.
It was just the second losing season for Cal under Tedford. The Golden Bears were 5-7 in 2010.
His record at Berkeley, 82-57, made him the winningest coach in school history and only three other coaches lasted as long as 10 seasons at Cal, which has been playing football since 1886.
"For many years, under Jeff Tedford's leadership, our program represented all that and more," said Cal Director of Athletics Sandy Barbour. "Coach Tedford deserves credit for the extraordinary effort he undertook to turn this program around and bring us to the heights of a Pac-10 co-championship in 2006.
"He has served his university admirably and I will forever be indebted for his commitment and expertise as well as the positive impact he has made in so many young men's lives over the years."
Barbour said a "change in direction to get our program back on the right track" was needed and that led to the coaching change.