Debose's second-quarter return set a Gator Bowl record and Florida (7-6) used another special teams touchdown on a blocked punt by Chris Rainey to secure the victory.
Rainey rushed 16 times for 71 yards.
John Brantley went 12-of-16 through the air for 129 yards and a touchdown for the Gators.
Ohio State (6-7) was led by Braxton Miller, who tossed for 165 yards and two touchdowns on 18-of-23 efficiency.
Dan Herron added 77 rushing yards on 12 carries for the Buckeyes.