Sullinger also grabbed seven rebounds. Lenzelle Smith Jr. overcame a cut near his right eye to score 16 of his 18 points in the second half for the second-seeded Buckeyes (31-7).
Ohio State reached the Final Four for the first time since 2007 and improved to 10-1 all-time in Elite Eight games. The Buckeyes now advance to New Orleans, where they will play the winner of Sunday's North Carolina-Kansas contest in one national semifinal.
Syracuse (34-3) fell short in its bid for its first Final Four date since 2003.
Brandon Triche netted 15 points and Scoop Jardine added 14 for the top-seeded Orange.