Kilpatrick was deadly from outside, connecting on four 3-pointers, and Yancy Gates supplied 10 points for the sixth-seeded Bearcats (26-10), who advanced to the Sweet 16 for the first time since 2001.
Cincinnati's win gave the state of Ohio four teams in the round of 16. The others include Xavier, Ohio University and Ohio State, which will face the Bearcats in Thursday's East Region semifinals in Pittsburgh.
Florida State (25-10) was led by Luke Loucks with 14 points.
Bernard James added 12 and Michael Snaer chipped in 11 for the Seminoles.