The Friars (12-6, 1-4 Big East) got 15 points and a game-high 14 assists from Vincent Council.
Providence scored its first conference win of the season at the expense of former coach and current Louisville mentor Rick Pitino, who led the Friars from 1985-87, taking them to the Final Four in his final year with the program.
The Cardinals (13-4, 1-3) continued their slide, losing for the fourth time in five contests.
Chris Smith put in 16 points to lead Louisville.
Penelope Cruz named 2013's 'Best Body' by Fitness magazine
Susan Sarandon: I was stoned at almost every awards show