Martin sustained the injury while playing for Team USA in Sochi, Russia, the Penguins confirmed in a Twitter post.
He was absent during the Americans' final two games, but the nature of his injury was never disclosed.
Team USA finished the Olympics without a medal after losing to Canada in the semifinals, and then falling to Finland in the bronze medal game.
Martin, who missed 23 games with a broken leg earlier this season, has two goals and 10 assists for 12 points over 33 games.
Swim Week Miami Beach 2014 [PHOTOS]