It was the 10th medal of Bjoergen's Winter Olympic career and her sixth gold, tying the record in both categories.
Raisa Smetanina of the Soviet Union won 10 medals during an Olympic career that ended in 1992. Soviet speed skater Lidia Skoblikova won six gold medals during the 1960 and 1964 Games.
Bjoergen, who captured the skiathlon at these Olympics and was part of Norway's team sprint victory as well, covered the 30 kilometers in 1:11.5.2. She defeated Norwegian Therese Johaug by 2.6 seconds. Norway's Kristin Stoermer Steira finished another 21 seconds back.
Justyna Kowalczyk, who won the 10-meter race last week despite skiing with a broken foot, dropped out of Saturday's race at the halfway mark.