Zetterberg, 33, missed 13 games due to back problems but played in the opening Olympic game for Sweden. He missed practice after the first game in Sochi and was later diagnosed as having a herniated disk in his back.
Red Wings General Manager Ken Holland said Friday Zetterberg had surgery Friday on his back and would be re-evaluated in eight weeks. The NHL regular season ends in mid-April.
Detroit is fifth in the NHL's Atlanta Division and is eighth in the Eastern Conference playoffs standings.
Even after missing 13 games Zetterberg leads the Red Wings with 48 points in 13 goals and 32 assists in 45 games.