On the decisive play, Trouba got the puck at the point and powered his way behind the Hurricanes' net, where he tried a wrap-around shot.
Anton Khudobin made the initial stop, but Thorburn pounced on the rebound to break a 1-1 tie and boost the surging Jets to a ninth win in 11 games.
Riley Nash scored for Carolina, which fell for the second time in three contests.
Khudobin finished with 25 saves.
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