Derek Stepan, Marc Staal and Dominic Moore each had a goal and an assist for the Rangers, who shook off cold temperatures and snow flurries to erase an early 3-1 deficit and log a victory in the first of two New York games in the 2014 NHL Stadium Series.
Rick Nash and Carl Hagelin also scored for New York, which broke the record for most goals scored in an outdoor game.
Henrik Lundqvist turned aside 19-of-22 shots as the Rangers -- designated the road team in the contest -- broke a two-game skid.
They will host the New York Islanders Wednesday at Yankee Stadium to conclude the Stadium Series.
The Devils' Martin Brodeur allowed six goals on 21 shots over the first two periods -- the most he has ever allowed in his long career against the Rangers.
Corey Crawford stopped 4-of-5 shots in the third.