Patterson rambled 50 yards for a score in the first quarter and added a go-ahead, 8-yard scoring grab in the fourth for Minnesota (5-10-1), which bid farewell to its home of 31 years.
The Vikings will play outdoors at the University of Minnesota for the next two seasons while a new domed stadium is being built on the Metrodome's site in downtown Minneapolis.
Matt Cassel completed 20-of-33 passes for 189 yards with a touchdown and an interception as Minnesota wrapped up a 5-3 home record.
The Lions (7-9) ended the season by dropping six of their final seven games.
Matthew Stafford went 22-for-33 through the air for 217 yards with a touchdown.