Dalton completed 24-of-35 pass attempts for 275 yards. He hooked up with A.J. Green, Marvin Jones and Jermaine Gresham on scoring strikes for the AFC North-leading Bengals (9-4), who scored three touchdowns in the final 18 minutes to ice the victory.
BenJarvus Green-Ellis ran for a pair of scores en route to 48 yards and Giovani Bernard added 99 rushing yards on 12 carries as Cincinnati posted a third straight win overall.
Andrew Luck compiled 326 aerial yards and four touchdowns the Colts (8-5), who dropped a second straight but still clinched the AFC South crown with Tennessee's loss to Denver Sunday.
Da'Rick Rogers and LaVon Brazill each grabbed a TD toss in the third quarter.