Pole-sitter Vettel shook off a mid-race mishap in pit row to cross the finish line ahead of Red Bull teammate Mark Webber, securing his 13th overall triumph of the year to tie Michael Schumacher's 2004 season record.
He also equalled Alberto Ascari's F1 record of nine consecutive victories, set between 1952 and 1953.
Vettel nailed down the 2013 championship last month in India and last week in Austin, Texas, established the F1 record of eight straight wins in a single season.
Ferarri's Fernando Alonso took third place to finish the season No. 2 in the championship standings, 155 points off Vettel's pace.
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