Incognito was suspended indefinitely Nov. 3 following allegations of harassment made against him by teammate Jonathan Martin.
Martin left the club prior to Incognito's suspension, and the alleged hazing incident has brought about an investigation by the NFL.
"Richie Incognito filed a non-injury grievance against his employer, the Miami Dolphins, pursuant to his rights under the collective bargaining agreement," the players' union said in a statement Thursday.
"The grievance challenges his suspension for conduct which was alleged to have occurred while he was with the club. In the grievance, Incognito requests that the hearing be held on an expedited basis so that he can immediately resume playing for the team."