Braydon Coburn delivered the game-winning goal 3:33 into the final period, lifting the Flyers to their second win in nine tries this year.
New York played the next-to-last contest of its season-opening, nine-game road trip. The Rangers conclude the journey in Detroit on Saturday before finally playing at home for the first time on Monday against Montreal. They have 2-6 on their early-season trip.
The Flyers opened the scoring with a shorthanded goal from Matt Read 9:07 into the game and the Rangers tied it with 1:04 to go in the first period on a score by Brad Richards.
Cameron Talbot took the loss in his NHL debut. He made 25 saves while subbing for the injured Henrik Lundqvist.