Lewis replaces rookie EJ Manuel, who was injured in the Bills' 37-24 loss to Cleveland Thursday. Manuel is expected to miss several weeks due to a sprained right knee ligament.
Manuel was followed Thursday by Jeff Tuel, another rookie, but Tuel was just 8-of-20 for 80 yards and an interception.
Lewis has been on the Bills' practice squad since he was acquired in August from Detroit. He was an undrafted signee by St. Louis in 2010 and was with the Browns in 2011-12. He was on the off-season roster with the Lions before moving to Buffalo.
He appeared in one game last season, completing 22-of-32 passes for 204 yards, one touchdown and one interception.
"Thad gives us the best chance," Marrone said. "We're going to give him an opportunity to see what he has."
Buffalo will take a 2-3 record into its game Sunday against Cincinnati (3-2).