Hoyer, who took over behind center two weeks ago when starter Brandon Weeden went down with a sprained thumb, connected on 11 straight passes during two long scoring drives for the Browns (2-2).
His favorite target was Jordan Cameron, who made 10 grabs for 91 yards and a touchdown, while Josh Gordon added four catches for 71 yards in the win.
Billy Cundiff supplied a 51-yard field goal for Cleveland.
Andy Dalton went 23-of-42 through the air for 206 yards and an interception for the Bengals (2-2), who lost to the Browns for only the third time in 10 meetings.
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