The Astros lost their 13th consecutive game and have dropped 109 of their 160 contests this year.
Adams completed a three-run fourth with a two-run double and five New York pitchers teamed to protect the lead.
Adam Warren (3-2) went five innings to get the victory, throwing shutout ball while giving up two hits.
Brett Oberholzer (4-5) allowed three runs, one of which was unearned, on five hits in 5 1/3 to suffer the loss.
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