The NFL announced Goodson was disciplined for violating the league's substance abuse policies.
The former Oakland Raiders back signed a three-year, $6.9 million contract with the Jets May 15, just two days before he was arrested on drug possession and weapon charges.
Goodson had missed all of training camp while dealing with his legal problems before finally making his first appearance Monday, only to be immediately slapped with the suspension.
"While we welcome Mike back to the organization, we have had direct conversations to make our expectations very clear as we work together to help him move forward in a positive manner, both on and off the field," the Jets said in a statement.
"I've been away from the team to take care of some important personal things," Goodson added. "The time was helpful to me and now that I am back, I am going to do everything I can to contribute to the team."
Goodson will be eligible to return to the Jets' active roster following the team's Sept. 29 game against Tennessee.