The International Skating Union announced Cho, who won bronze in the 5,000-meter relay at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, wouldn't be allowed to compete again until Oct. 4, 2014.
The ruling precludes the American from appearing at the 2014 Winter Games in Sochi.
Cho last year admitted damaging the skate blade of Canadian Olivier Jean at the 2011 ISU World Short Track Speed Skating Team Championships. Jean couldn't finish the relay at the event due to a bent blade.
Cho, however, contended he did so at the instructions of former U.S. Coach Jae Su Chun.
An independent investigation determined Chun did not order any tampering, but the coach resigned last year after admitting Cho had told him about the incident.
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