Bartoli, 28, lost to Simona Halep in the second round of the Western & Southern Open Wednesday and then said at her post-match news conference she was quitting the game.
"My body just can't do it anymore," she said. "I've been through a lot of injuries since the start of the year and I left it all at Wimbledon.
"I really felt I gave all the energy I have left in my body there. I made a dream a reality and it will stay with me forever."
Bartoli, born in France and now a resident of Switzerland, retires as the seventh-ranked player in the world.
She marched through her seven Wimbledon victories this year without losing a set, although the highest-ranked player she had to face in the upset-filled tournament was No. 17 Sloane Stephens.
Bartoli defeated Stephens in the quarterfinals, then downed No. 20 Kirsten Flipkens in the semifinals. She was a 6-1, 6-4 winner in the championship match over No. 23 Sabine Lisicki, who had eliminated world No. 1 Serena Williams in the fourth round.
She won eight WTA Tour events in her career and finishes with a 490-299 match record.