The defending NASCAR Sprint Cup champion was clocked at 135.922 miles per hour for his trip around the 1.058-mile oval. It was his third career Sprint Cup pole, the previous one having come 26 months and 78 races ago.
Points leader Jimmie Johnson turned in the second-fastest performance of the day, but his car failed a post-qualifying inspection. Because officials determined the front of Johnson's car was too low, he will have to start at the back of the 43-car field in Sunday's race.
Johnson won last week's race at Daytona.
Keselowski is 13th in the point standings without a win this year.