Cheeks, 56, comes to the Pistons after spending the last four years as an assistant with Oklahoma City, where he has been part of the Thunder's recent success.
Oklahoma City reached the NBA finals in 2012 and posted the best record in the Western Conference this past regular season.
He also served as head coach in both Portland and Philadelphia during the last decade -- compiling a 284-286 overall record over eight seasons, but failing to win a post-season series -- and as an assistant with Philadelphia during the Sixers' run to the 2001 NBA Finals.
As a player, the four-time all-star was a member of the 76ers' 1982-83 NBA championship squad.
"After spending some time with Maurice, I was very impressed not only with his basketball knowledge, but his communication and leadership skills," Pistons owner Tom Gores said.
Frank was fired in April following a 29-53 finish, marking the fourth straight year Detroit has failed to make the playoffs.