Aceves (2-1) handled the Phillies on seven hits, walking three and striking out four in a spot start after being recalled from Class AAA Pawtucket last week. The right-hander walked three and struck out four.
Dustin Pedroia cracked a two-run homer while Mike Napoli added a solo shot and a run-scoring double for the Red Sox, who racked up a fourth straight win in the opener of a four-game home-and-home interleague set.
Stephen Drew went 2-for-3 with two RBI and two runs scored for the victors.
Phillies starter Tyler Cloyd (1-1) was lit up for six runs on nine hits, lasting just 2 1/3 innings.
Domonic Brown connected for a two-run homer and Erik Kratz provided a solo shot for Philadelphia.