Pettitte felt tightness in the arm during a start on Thursday against Seattle and he left the game in the fifth inning. He had been in search of the 250th victory of his 18-year career.
Vidal Nuno was called up by the Yankees from Class AAA Scranton/Wilkes Barre to fill the roster spot.
Pettitte, who has a 4-3 record this year with a 3.83 earned run average in eight starts, has been a member of three American League All-Star teams and a part of five World Series championship teams.
He went into retirement in 2011, but he decided to return after missing just one season. He suffered a fractured ankle in 2012 that limited him to 12 starts.