Kenseth turned in the top qualifying performance at Richmond International Raceway two days after his team was heavily fined for using an improper part in the engine that was in the winning car at last weekend's race in Kansas.
Friday's pole was the 10th for Kenseth in his 481st start in the Sprint Cup series. He won the pole last week, but that victory was removed from the record book as part of the penalties his Joe Gibbs Racing team received.
Kenseth ran a lap of 130.334 mph Friday, breaking the qualifying record of 129.983 mph, set by Brian Vickers in May 2004.
The last three races in the series have been won by the driver who started on the pole. That had not happened in 28 years.