Billingsley, 28, is scheduled for "Tommy John" ligament replacement surgery and will be out at least 12 months, the team said.
The right-hander, who had been placed on the disabled list with elbow pain Sunday, had compiled a 1-0 mark with a 3.00 ERA in two appearances this season.
Billingsley sustained a partially torn elbow ligament last season but rejected surgery then in favor of a regimen of platelet-rich plasma injections.
His final start came April 15 -- a 6-3 loss to San Diego.
The Dodgers said Stephen Fife will take Billingsley's spot in the starting rotation.